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Packaging Guide

4. autopkgtest: Teste automático para pacotes

The DEP 8 specification defines how automatic testing can very easily be integrated into packages. To integrate a test into a package, all you need to do is:

  • adicione um arquivo chamado debian/tests/control que especifica os requisitos para o testbed,

  • adicione os testes em debian/tests/.

4.1. Requisitos do Testbed

In debian/tests/control you specify what to expect from the testbed. So for example you list all the required packages for the tests, if the testbed gets broken during the build or if root permissions are required. The DEP 8 specification lists all available options.

Abaixo estamos vendo o pacote fonte do glib2.0. Em um caso muito simples, o arquivo se pareceria com isto:

Tests: build
Depends: libglib2.0-dev, build-essential

Para o teste em debian/tests/build isto deverá garantir que os pacotes libglib2.0-dev e build-essential estão instalados.


Você pode usar @ na linha Depends para indicar que você quer que todos os pacotes instalados sejam compilados pelo pacote fonte em questão.

4.2. Os testes reais

O teste que deve acompanhar o exemplo acima poderia ser:

# autopkgtest check: Build and run a program against glib, to verify that the
# headers and pkg-config file are installed correctly
# (C) 2012 Canonical Ltd.
# Author: Martin Pitt <martin.pitt@ubuntu.com>

set -e

WORKDIR=$(mktemp -d)
cat <<EOF > glibtest.c
#include <glib.h>

int main()
    g_assert_cmpint (g_strcmp0 (NULL, "hello"), ==, -1);
    g_assert_cmpstr (g_find_program_in_path ("bash"), ==, "/bin/bash");
    return 0;

gcc -o glibtest glibtest.c `pkg-config --cflags --libs glib-2.0`
echo "build: OK"
[ -x glibtest ]
echo "run: OK"

Aqui um pedaço simples de código em C é escrito em um diretório temporário. Então este é compilado com bibliotecas do sistema (usando flags e caminhos de biblioteca providos por pkg-config). Em seguida o binário compilado, que apenas utiliza partes da funcionalidade do núcleo glib, é executado.

While this test is very small and simple, it covers quite a lot: that your -dev package has all necessary dependencies, that your package installs working pkg-config files, headers and libraries are put into the right place, or that the compiler and linker work. This helps to uncover critical issues early on.

4.3. Executando o teste

While the test script can be easily executed on its own, it is strongly recommended to actually use autopkgtest from the autopkgtest package for verifying that your test works; otherwise, if it fails in the Ubuntu Continuous Integration (CI) system, it will not land in Ubuntu. This also avoids cluttering your workstation with test packages or test configuration if the test does something more intrusive than the simple example above.

The README.running-tests documentation explains all available testbeds (schroot, LXD, QEMU, etc.) and the most common scenarios how to run your tests with autopkgtest, e. g. with locally built binaries, locally modified tests, etc.

The Ubuntu CI system uses the QEMU runner and runs the tests from the packages in the archive, with -proposed enabled. To reproduce the exact same environment, first install the necessary packages:

sudo apt install autopkgtest qemu-system qemu-utils autodep8

Now build a testbed with:

autopkgtest-buildvm-ubuntu-cloud -v

(Please see its manpage and --help output for selecting different releases, architectures, output directory, or using proxies). This will build e. g. adt-trusty-amd64-cloud.img.

Then run the tests of a source package like libpng in that QEMU image:

autopkgtest libpng -- qemu adt-trusty-amd64-cloud.img

The Ubuntu CI system runs packages with only selected packages from -proposed available (the package which caused the test to be run); to enable that, run:

autopkgtest libpng -U --apt-pocket=proposed=src:foo -- qemu adt-release-amd64-cloud.img

or to run with all packages from -proposed:

autopkgtest libpng -U --apt-pocket=proposed -- qemu adt-release-amd64-cloud.img

The autopkgtest manpage has a lot more valuable information on other testing options.

4.4. Outros exemplos

Esta lista não é completa, mas pode ajudá-lo a ter uma ideia melhor de como testes automatizados são implementados e usados no Ubuntu.

  • The libxml2 tests are very similar. They also run a test-build of a simple piece of C code and execute it.
  • The gtk+3.0 tests also do a compile/link/run check in the “build” test. There is an additional “python3-gi” test which verifies that the GTK library can also be used through introspection.
  • In the ubiquity tests the upstream test-suite is executed.
  • The gvfs tests have comprehensive testing of their functionality and are very interesting because they emulate usage of CDs, Samba, DAV and other bits.

4.5. Infraestrutura do Ubuntu

Packages which have autopkgtest enabled will have their tests run whenever they get uploaded or any of their dependencies change. The output of automatically run autopkgtest tests can be viewed on the web and is regularly updated.

Debian also uses autopkgtest to run package tests, although currently only in schroots, so results may vary a bit. Results and logs can be seen on http://ci.debian.net. So please submit any test fixes or new tests to Debian as well.

4.6. Obtendo o teste no Ubuntu

O processo de envio de um autopkgtest para um pacote é muito semelhante a corrigindo um erro no Ubuntu. Essencialmente, você simplesmente:

  • execute bzr branch ubuntu:<nomedopacote>,

  • edite debian/control para habilitar os testes,

  • adiciona o diretório debian/tests,

  • write the debian/tests/control based on the DEP 8 Specification,
  • adicione seu(s) caso(s) de teste em debian/tests,

  • submeta suas mudanças, envie elas para o Launchpad, proponha a mesclagem e obtenha revisões apenas como qualquer outra melhoria no pacote fonte.

4.7. O que você pode fazer

The Ubuntu Engineering team put together a list of required test-cases, where packages which need tests are put into different categories. Here you can find examples of these tests and easily assign them to yourself.

If you should run into any problems, you can join the #ubuntu-quality IRC channel to get in touch with developers who can help you.